The Book of Mormon is a scriptural record of Ancient Americans spanning a 1,000 year history of their people from about 600 B.C. to 400 A.D. While there are many references in the The Book of Mormon to places and directions, with it having been written so long ago the names of cities and places do not specifically translate to modern day cities and places. However, there are enough clues provided in the writings that we can piece together many compelling theories for where specific events described in The Book of Mormon took place in the Americas. In recent years, many archeological findings support the magnificent claims in The Book of Mormon and help substantiate some of the timeline/location theories.
My personal opinion is that the majority of the historical activity documented in The Book of Mormon occurred in the eastern half of the United States. Obviously, there was also a lot of other activity occurring in Mesoamerica and other regions of the Americas during the timeframe. There is strong correlation of the timeline of the major group of people in The Book of Mormon, the Nephites, with the archeological record of the people known as the Hopewell Culture. The Hopewell’s were the major “mound builders” of eastern United States. The evidence they left behind in their mounds correlates strongly with the written record of the people in The Book of Mormon.
The folks at the “BookOfMormonEvidence.org” website have nicely documented a proposed timeline of the Nephites and their correlation with the Hopewell Culture, as well as many of the narratives found in The Book of Mormon, on their blog at this website page:
I highly recommend you read their post and consider it as one of the leading theories for The Book of Mormon timeline and geography.
Also, be sure to read my recent post entitled: How Does a Bible-Loving Christian Explain The Book of Mormon.